Articles

Rational Perception in Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra

The article zeroes in on the controversial concept of rational perception in Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra’s receptive oeuvres, defining it as the complex abstraction, combination and production of universals. The role of sense perception, along with its relationship to intuition, features prominently here. The author emphasizes the break with Ibn Sina in his discussion of Mulla Sadra’s view of a certain mutability of the human soul and the three different worlds in which it exists. Emanation is posited as an existentialist relationship mired in activity rather than passivity.
HMouK
2021/10/18
Articles

Āqā ʿAlī Mudarris Ṭihrānī

Āqā ʿAlī Mudarris Ṭihrānī (1818-1889) was one of the most distinguished commentators of Mulla Sadra in Qajar period and made a valuable attempt to complete Mulla Sadra’s philosophical project. Although his philosophical writings never became as popular as Sabzawari’s, his scrutiny of philosophical matters is remarkable. As is evident from his writings, Ṭihrānī was familiar with a great deal of what was the current writings on hikma. Although he was an adherent of Mulla Sadra’s philosophy and logic, he used a large number of contemporary philosophical sources in his writings.
HMouK
2021/10/16
Articles

Genealogies of Pluralism in Islamic Thought: Shi‘a Perspective

Although there are a lot of verses in the Qur’an endorsing the notions of freedom, tolerance, diversity, and pluralism, all of these verses were abrogated by the Sword Verse, according to some major classical Sunni scholars. In Shi’a Islam, however, none of these verses were abrogated; the Qur’anic arguments on freedom and diversity are always valid since they are an essential part of faith; they cannot be abrogated. The political teachings of Imam ‘Ali Ibn Abi Ṭalib are very supportive of diversity and pluralism in the modern sense.
HMouK
2021/03/22
Articles

Toward Removing the Punishment of Apostasy in Islam

‘Freedom of religion’ is a strong principle in Islam. The Qur’an neither mentions nor prescribes any temporal punishment for apostasy. No one during the time of the Prophet was killed solely for apostasy. Abolishing all types of temporal punishments for apostasy: Acknowledgement of the alteration of the subject and context; the invalidity of akhbār al-haād in matters of critical importance such as the life of a human being; the invalidity of hadiths that run counter to Qur’anic dictates; and the abrogation of the punishments for apostasy because of ‘impairing’ Islam.
HMouK
2021/03/21
Articles

Democracy and ethical values from Islamic perspective

‘Minimal democracy’ is the problematic of the residents of authoritarian countries, including most of Muslim majority countries. The record of Western liberal democracy for the ‘rest’ in both periods –colonialism and postcolonialism – is not defendable, neither in support of democracy and human rights abroad nor in support of peace, morality and ethics in the globe. According to ethical-based Shari’a, democracy is the best available means for serving the moral purposes of Islam. Democracy offers the greatest potential for promoting justice, protecting human dignity, human freedom and emancipation.
HMouK
2020/03/15
Articles

Islam and Democracy: Perspectives from Reformist and Traditional Islam

After explaining the identifying characteristics of traditional interpretations and reformist readings of Islam, this chapter highlights three underlying themes that are essential to the relationship between Islam and democracy: (a) popular sovereignty and oversight; (b) political equality; and (c) public decision-making. The chapter explicates how traditionalist and reformist readings of Islamic teachings have resulted in sharply diverging articulations of these themes. The two assumptions that underpin this chapter are as follows: Traditional and historical interpretations of Islam are incompatible with democracy. Reformist interpretations of Islam are compatible with democracy.
kadivarad33
2018/07/06
Articles

Human Action Within Divine Creation, A Muslim Perspective

My goal is to demonstrate how Muslims in twelve schools of thought, especially at the present time, understand human action within divine creation. In mainstream Islamic thought, the lesson of the Qurʾān is that human action is attributed to God and to the human agent simultaneously. The human agent has free choice in his acts. Human free choice and power are based on God’s power, providence, will and permission. In their existence and in all aspects and affairs of their lives, including their acts, human beings are not independent of…
kadivarad33
2018/04/30
Articles

Reforming Islamic Thought through Structural Ijtihad

Iran Nameh: A Persian-English Quarterly of Iranian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, Nov. 2015, XX-XXVII Reforming Islamic Thought through Structural Ijtihad 1   Ijtihad, or independent reasoning, has been the first cause of the dynamism of Islam from within for several centuries, and it has worked well. According to this method, Muslim scholars – mostly jurists (fuqaha)—referred to the Qur’an and the tradition of the prophet Muhammad in order to find the practical duties (shari’a) of believers. The ordinances of shari’a that were introduced by the jurists were sufficient for…
kadivarad33
2015/11/11
Articles

Routinizing the Iranian Revolution

“Routinizing the Iranian Revolution” in Islam in the Modern World, edited by Jeffery T. Kenney and Ebrahim Moosa, Routledge, New York, 2014, pp. 351-368 Routinizing Iranian Revolution CHAPTER AT A GLANCE Revolution lays foundations of new Iranian state and Constitution Charismatic leadership and Shi`i political theology gave birth to the Islamic Republic of Iran Constitutional values undermined by a context political threats to Iran  Expedient secular values adopted by charismatic religious leadership erodes values of constitution and religion   The dramatic developments in 1979 shook the world.  Popular uprisings forced…
kadivarad33
2013/11/22
Articles

REVISITING WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN ISLAM: ‘Egalitarian Justice’ in Lieu of ‘Deserts-based Justice’

In traditional Islamic thought women’s rights have been defined on the basis of a ‘deserts-based’ notion of justice (al-ʿadāla al-istiḥqāqiyya), by which individuals are entitled to justice according to their status, abilities and potential. This notion of justice leads to proportional equality, which recognises rights for individuals in proportion to their ‘deserts’. In modern times this notion of justice has encountered enormous problems. Can we reread the Qurʾan and the Traditions in the light of an egalitarian notion of justice that is premised on fundamental equality between men and women?
kadivarad33
2013/05/24