Articles

Democracy and ethical values from Islamic perspective

‘Minimal democracy’ is the problematic of the residents of authoritarian countries, including most of Muslim majority countries. The record of Western liberal democracy for the ‘rest’ in both periods –colonialism and postcolonialism – is not defendable, neither in support of democracy and human rights abroad nor in support of peace, morality and ethics in the globe. According to ethical-based Shari’a, democracy is the best available means for serving the moral purposes of Islam. Democracy offers the greatest potential for promoting justice, protecting human dignity, human freedom and emancipation.
HMouK
2020/03/15
Articles

Islam and Democracy: Perspectives from Reformist and Traditional Islam

After explaining the identifying characteristics of traditional interpretations and reformist readings of Islam, this chapter highlights three underlying themes that are essential to the relationship between Islam and democracy: (a) popular sovereignty and oversight; (b) political equality; and (c) public decision-making. The chapter explicates how traditionalist and reformist readings of Islamic teachings have resulted in sharply diverging articulations of these themes. The two assumptions that underpin this chapter are as follows: Traditional and historical interpretations of Islam are incompatible with democracy. Reformist interpretations of Islam are compatible with democracy.
kadivarad33
2018/07/06
Articles

Human Action Within Divine Creation, A Muslim Perspective

My goal is to demonstrate how Muslims in twelve schools of thought, especially at the present time, understand human action within divine creation. In mainstream Islamic thought, the lesson of the Qurʾān is that human action is attributed to God and to the human agent simultaneously. The human agent has free choice in his acts. Human free choice and power are based on God’s power, providence, will and permission. In their existence and in all aspects and affairs of their lives, including their acts, human beings are not independent of…
kadivarad33
2018/04/30
Articles

Reforming Islamic Thought through Structural Ijtihad

Iran Nameh: A Persian-English Quarterly of Iranian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3, Nov. 2015, XX-XXVII Reforming Islamic Thought through Structural Ijtihad 1   Ijtihad, or independent reasoning, has been the first cause of the dynamism of Islam from within for several centuries, and it has worked well. According to this method, Muslim scholars – mostly jurists (fuqaha)—referred to the Qur’an and the tradition of the prophet Muhammad in order to find the practical duties (shari’a) of believers. The ordinances of shari’a that were introduced by the jurists were sufficient for…
kadivarad33
2015/11/11
Articles

Routinizing the Iranian Revolution

“Routinizing the Iranian Revolution” in Islam in the Modern World, edited by Jeffery T. Kenney and Ebrahim Moosa, Routledge, New York, 2014, pp. 351-368 Routinizing Iranian Revolution CHAPTER AT A GLANCE Revolution lays foundations of new Iranian state and Constitution Charismatic leadership and Shi`i political theology gave birth to the Islamic Republic of Iran Constitutional values undermined by a context political threats to Iran  Expedient secular values adopted by charismatic religious leadership erodes values of constitution and religion   The dramatic developments in 1979 shook the world.  Popular uprisings forced…
kadivarad33
2013/11/22
Articles

REVISITING WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN ISLAM: ‘Egalitarian Justice’ in Lieu of ‘Deserts-based Justice’

In traditional Islamic thought women’s rights have been defined on the basis of a ‘deserts-based’ notion of justice (al-ʿadāla al-istiḥqāqiyya), by which individuals are entitled to justice according to their status, abilities and potential. This notion of justice leads to proportional equality, which recognises rights for individuals in proportion to their ‘deserts’. In modern times this notion of justice has encountered enormous problems. Can we reread the Qurʾan and the Traditions in the light of an egalitarian notion of justice that is premised on fundamental equality between men and women?
kadivarad33
2013/05/24
Articles

From Traditional Islam to Islam as an End in Itself

Die Welt des Islams 51 (2011) 459-484, Brill, Liden, The Netherland From Traditional Islam to Islam as an End in Itself  Mohsen Kadivar The development of religious thought in Iran has particularly accelerated during the past century. It can be interpreted as the passage from a traditional view of religion to one which is an end in itself. I mean by traditional Islam the domination of the culture and exigencies of the time, place, and special circumstances of the Age of the Revelation as the immutable, sacred, and idealized framework…
kadivarad33
2011/12/11
Articles

Wilayat al-faqih and Democracy

“Wilayat al-faqih and Democracy” in Asma Afsaruddin (ed.), Islam, the State, and Authority: Medieval Concerns and Modern Issues, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, pp. 207-224 Wilayat al-faqih and Democracy Abstract The concept of wilayat al-faqih as a type of Shi`ite Islamic government gained currency after the Islamic revolution in Iran, and it has now been experienced for more than a quarter of a century. A key question in contemporary Iranian politics is the compatibility of the wilayat al-faqih with democracy. This question can be answered from the perspective of political thought, or…
kadivarad33
2011/11/13
Articles

Human Rights and Intellectual Islam

New Directions in Islamic Thought: Exploring Reform and Muslim Tradition; Kari Vogt, Lena Larsen, Christian Moe (editors); I.B. Taurus, London, 2009, pp.47-73 Human rights & Intellectual Islam EDITORS’ NOTE: This chapter originally appeared in a two-part article published in Iran in 2003. In the first part of the article, the author surveys six areas of conflict between historical Islam and human rights norms: (1) inequality between Muslims and non-Muslims, (2) inequality between men and women, (3) inequality between slaves and free human beings, (4) inequality between commoners and jurists in…
kadivarad33
2009/05/15
Articles

Theories of Government in Shi’i Fiqh

“Theories of Government in Shi’i Fiqh”, Mujahid Hussain (translator) in Paul Luft and Colin Turner (editors). Shi’ism: Critical concepts in Islamic studies, vol III: Law, rite and ritual. London: Routledge, 2008, pp. 267-282. Kadivar, Theories of Government in Shi'i Fiqh
kadivarad33
2008/05/26