Azimi, Fakhreddin; the Quest for Democracy in Iran, a Century of Struggle against Authoritarian Rule; (Harvard University Press, 2008); chap 11: The Culture of Politics: The Presence and Absence of the past; p. 419.
Rajaee; Islamism and Modernism, chap 4 (pdf); (University of Texas Press, Austin, 2007); chapter four: The Fourth Generation, The Politics of Restoration, 1977-2005; PP. 208-221: The Islam of Qom: Montazeri and Kadivar.
Abstract This article seeks to place Mohsen Kadivar in the context of broadly defined modern Iranian (Shi-ite Islamic) religious thinkers as a postrevivalist new-thinker of religion, and to illustrate this characterization through an examination of his advocacy of 'spiritual and goal-oriented Islam'. Committed to what he terms the 'way of the men of reason' as he tries to 'defend religiosity in the modern era', Kadivar seeks to strike a balance between modern, secular, rational ways and the 'principal message of Islam'. After distinguishing four types of modern religious thinkers…
Bayat, Asef; Making Islam Democratic, Social Movements and the Post-Islamic Turn; (Stanford University Press, 2007); chap 3: the making of a Post-Islamic Movement: Social Movement and Sociopolitical Change in Iran, 1979-1997 & chap 4: Post Islamism in Power: Dilemmas of the Reform Project, 1997-2004; pp. 86-94, 101, 12, 186-189.
Razavi, Shahra; Islamic Politics, Human Rights and Women's Claims for Equality in Iran; Third World Quarterly; Vol. 27, No. 7, the Politics of Rights: Dilemmas for Feminist Praxis, (2006), pp. 1223-1237 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd; Rutledge. Abstract Polemical assertions about the civilisational clash between Islam and Christianity, and Islams incompatibility with human rights and gender equality are frequently heard these days. Political Islam, however, is far from homogeneous, and the modernist and reformist currents which have emerged in many diverse contexts often seek to embrace both human…
Vahdat, Farzin; Religious Modernity in Iran: Dilemmas of Islamic Democracy in the Discourse of Mohammad Khatami, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Duke University Press, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2005, p.652. During the first few years after the election of Mohammad Khatami to the presidency of the Islamic Republic in 1997, pro-democracy groups and individuals experienced an episode of euphoria and enthusiasm that soon turned into despair and apathy. As early as the first term of his tenure, Khatami’s promises of freedom, civil society, and the…